324 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. vinces occupied except Gilan. Probably neither side in- tended to observe the conditions of this treaty loyally. The Persian Insurrection at Kazvin, A.M. 1136 (1723). —At Kazvin the Afghans were dealing with a population which was more virile than that of Isfahan, but, being ignorant or careless of this circumstance, they treated its citizens with cruelty and oppression. Consequently, in a short time a well-planned insurrection broke out, the Afghans were attacked simultaneously, and were driven from the city with the loss of two thousand men and all their baggage. Ashraf, son of Mir Abdulla, returned to Kandahar with three hundred men, and the remainder retired on Isfahan, suffering severely from the cold. This disaster and various defections left only about fifteen thousand men at Mahmud's disposal at this crisis. Comparatively few recruits had come from Kandahar to fill up his depleted regiments, whereas large bands of men had gone home laden with plunder. Three large caravans in aU reached Isfahan during his reign, in the last of which was his mother, who " came to the principal Gate of the new King's Palace half naked, and what cloaths she had all in Tatters, ravenously gnawing a great Radish she held in her hand more like a Witch than the Mother of a great King/'l The Massacres at Isfahan^ A.D. 1723.—Mahmud wished to hold Isfahan at all costs, and he determined to massacre a large number of its citizens, thinking that he would be able to rule by the terror inspired in a reduced and leaderless population. In pursuance of this fiendish plan, the day after the return of the defeated Afghans the Persian Ministers and great nobles, with only two or three exceptions, were invited to a feast, where they were massacred, and their corpses were afterwards thrown into the Great Square. Mahmud's next step was to massacre three thousand Persian guards whom he had taken into his pay. No sooner was this effected than an order was issued to put to death every Persian who had served Shah Husayn. This awful edict resulted in an indiscriminate massacre which continued for fifteen days without any 1 Kmsinski.